.The fast pace of drilling and completion of unconventional reservoirs in North America is challenging engineers, geoscientists and petrophysicists who have to make prompt and reasonable plans for drilling completion strategies. One of the main issues is understanding the physical rock properties, such as clay and organic content, and mechanical properties or stress behaviour, in these often highly anisotropic reservoirs.
The Duvernay Formation, located in central Alberta, Canada, is mainly an organic-rich shale that is a source rock for conventional oil and gas reservoirs, and more recently also very attractive for exploitation as unconventional shale plays. The development of these types of plays requires the implementation of unconventional techniques, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, to increase the permeability of the reservoir.
Stacked tight sands and unconventional plays tend to be found together in what has been termed as deep basin environments also known as continuous basin-centered gas accumulations (BCGAs) which tend to be found predominately in foreland and intracratonic basins but are not restricted to these basins.
The CSEG RECORDER reflects all the activities that we do as a professional organization and our contributions to society and to our respective industries. We would like to encourage authors from universities and the geoscience industries including but not limited to hydrology, environmental, mining, etc. around the world to submit their articles that are about the implementation of Geoscience or Engineering that will help our community to have innovative and creative thoughts.
For the last several years, there have been numerous technical workshops on injection-induced seismicity which, looking back, serve as snapshots documenting the rapid evolution in our understanding of this important topic. With time, the tone of these workshops has changed in step with advancement by industry, regulators and academics managing this critical issue. Early discussions focused on education and awareness of the causes and cases of induced seismicity. This was followed by reactive implementation of regulated traffic light systems, and now development of more proactive operational strategies to mitigate induced seismicity.
A magnitude-based, traffic light protocol is the most common mitigation approach to injection-induced seismicity, adopted by both regulators and operators throughout North America. Despite challenges associated with a protocol based on an estimate of seismic source strength, magnitude-based protocols still prevail over alternatives such as using measured ground motions.
“Induced seismicity” refers to a seismic event that is caused by pore pressure and stress change associated with human activity (Boroumand and Maghsoudi, 2016). The maximum magnitude of induced earthquakes is smaller than what is seen with natural earthquakes (Metz et al., 2017); they tend to occur in swarms (Metz et al., 2017); and occur at shallower depths than natural earthquakes (Gomberg and Wolf, 1999; McNamara et al., 2015; Metz et al., 2017), which may explain why they have been reported to be felt at surface (Boroumand and Maghsoudi, 2016) though they are small in magnitude.
In the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), with complex salt geometry, it is not unusual to see coherent noise in subsalt imaging. Such noise is detrimental to subsalt exploration and appraisal as they often lead to incorrect interpretations.
We focus on extracting new value to previously acquired orthogonal WAZ surveys in the Mississippi Canyon area where some of the largest and still active deep water discoveries reside. Some analyses estimate that many large subsalt/presalt fields can still be discovered.
In Mississippi Canyon a unique characteristic of salt geometries are their stacking hourglass shapes – autochthonous Louann salt forms the lower part, allochthonous Mesozoic salt forms the middle part, and Cenozoic salt canopy forms the shallow part.
In September 1985, the first edition of the RECORDER was launched. Having evolved from our humble CSEG member newsletter, the RECORDER has grown into a well-received and respected publication within both the energy and geophysics fields. Like the industry around us, the RECODER continues to evolve to meet the needs of our readers.